Saturday, June 23, 2018

Saturday, June 23, 2018 — Precious Stones

Introduction

According to the old adage, "all that glitters is not gold" and such is the case with today's puzzle from Cox & Rathvon.

I invite you to leave a comment to let us know how you fared with the puzzle.

Solution to Today's Puzzle

Falcon's Experience
┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┐
███████████████████████████████████
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┘
Legend:
- solved without assistance
- incorrect prior to use of puzzle solving tools
- solved with assistance from puzzle solving tools
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by puzzle solving tools
- solved but without fully parsing the clue
- yet to be solved

Click here for an explanation of conventions and symbols used in explaining the parsing of clues.


The purpose of this article is to explain the conventions and symbols that I use on this blog in explaining the parsing of clues.

Legend:

The following symbols are used in reviews:
  • "*" anagram
  • "~" sounds like
  • "<" indicates that the preceding letters are reversed
  • "( )" encloses contained letters
  • "_" replaces letters that have been deleted
  • "†" indicates that the word is present in the clue

The review of a clue takes the following general structure:

#a/d   Clue containing parsing markup (num*)

* num = numeration

Explanations pertaining to the wordplay (or first definition in a double definition)

(Horizontal separator)


Explanations pertaining to the definition (or second definition in a double definition) and solution.

Explanatory Box
An explanatory box provides additional information about the clue. In most cases this information will not necessarily help in solving the clue but provides information about the clue. In the case of the weekday syndicated Daily Telegraph puzzles, such information is often intended to help the North American solver appreciate how the clue may be perceived by a British solver. These boxes may also provide information on people, places, films, television programmes, works of art and literature, etc. mentioned in the clue.

Although the titles of these boxes will usually be drawn from a standard list, I do occasionally throw in a title specifically suggested by the subject at hand. The standard titles include:
  • Scratching the Surface - an explanation of the surface reading of the clue
  • Delving Deeper - in-depth information pertaining to a subject mentioned in an explanation
  • Behind the Picture - for weekday puzzles, information about an illustration found on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What did he/she/they say? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a remark made in a review or comment on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What are they talking about? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a discussion on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
One box that may provide information that could prove helpful in solving the clue is the following:
  • Here and There - for weekday puzzles, discusses words whose British meaning differs from their North American meaning

Note that there are many types of cryptic crossword clue and it is not my intention to exhaustively go through all of them here. I will only deal with clue types to the extent necessary to explain the conventions and symbols used on the blog. Furthermore, be aware that, in the world of cryptic crosswords, there seems to be an exception to every rule.

With one exception that I can think of, cryptic crossword clues provide two routes to the solution. These are commonly referred to as the definition and wordplay. While these terms serve well for most clues, there are some cases where the more formal terms of primary indication and subsidiary indication may be more appropriate.

Most cryptic crossword clues consist of a definition (primary indication) and wordplay (subsidiary indication). The definition may be a "precise definition" (a definition that is either taken straight from a dictionary or at least phrased in a non-misleading fashion) or it may be a "cryptic definition" (a definition misleadingly phrased so as to misdirect the solver either with respect to the meaning of the definition as a whole or to an incorrect sense of a word used in the definition).

The only type of clue that I can think of where there are not two ways of finding the solution are those in which the entire clue is a cryptic definition.
I identify precise definitions by marking them with a solid underline in the clue and cryptic definitions by marking them with a dotted underline.
In clues in which both definition and wordplay are present, the two parts of the clue combine to provide an overall meaningful statement (the surface reading) which usually bears no relationship to the underlying cryptic reading of the clue. In some cases, an extra word or phrase will be inserted into the clue to create a meaningful link between the definition and wordplay. I define clues which contain such a link word or link phrase as having an explicit link and clues which contain no link word or link phrase as having an implicit link.
I mark the existence of an explicit link by enclosing the link word or link phrase between forward slashes (/link/) and mark the existence of an implicit link with double forward slashes (//) positioned between the definition and wordplay.
Examples

A few examples may help to illustrate these points more clearly.

The first example is a clue used by Jay in DT 28573:

  • 4d   Fellow left work // a failure (4)
Here the definition is "a failure" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as F (fellow; abbrev.) + L (left; abbrev.) + OP (work; abbrev. used in music) which gives us the solution F|L|OP. The double forward slashes (//) between the definition and wordplay indicate the existence of an "implicit link" between the two parts of the clue (that is, no extra words are inserted into the clue to form the link).

The second example is a clue used by Giovanni in DT 28575:
  • 29a   Female going to match // travels with mother in advance (10)
Here the definition "female going to match" is cryptic (the setter is attempting to misdirect our thoughts to a sports event rather than a marriage ceremony) and thus is marked with a a dotted underline. The wordplay is {RIDES (travels) + (with) MA (mother)} contained in (in) BID (advance) giving us the solution B(RIDES|MA)ID. As in the first example, the double forward slashes indicate the presence of an implicit link.

The third example is a clue used by Rufus is DT 28583:
  • 18d   Knight caught by misplaced big blow /is/ staggering (8)
Here the definition is "staggering" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as N ([chess symbol for] knight) contained in (caught in) an anagram (misplaced) of BIG BLOW producing the solution WOBBLI(N)G. Finally, forward slashes mark the link word (/is/).
I also use distinctive underlining to mark &lit.[7] and semi-&lit. clues. Note that the reviewers on Big Dave's Crossword Blog generally prefer to refer to these clue types by the less pretentious names of all-in-one or semi-all-in-one clues respectively.

In an &lit. clue[7] (or all-in-one clue) the entire clue provides not only the definition (when read one way), but under a different interpretation also serves as the wordplay.
In future, I will mark such clues with a combined solid and dashed underline. Although this is a departure from past practice, it would seem to make more sense than using a dotted underline as I have in the past). Henceforth, the dotted underline will be reserved for cryptic definitions.
In a semi-&lit. clue (or semi-all-in-one clue), either:
  • the entire clue acts as the definition while a portion of the clue provides the wordplay; or
  • the entire clue acts as the wordplay while a portion of the clue provides the definition.
For these clues, I will mark the definition with a solid underline and the wordplay with a  dashed underline. This means that a portion of the clue may have a solid underline, a portion of the clue may have a dashed underline and a portion of the clue may have a combined solid and dashed underline.
One final clue type is what I characterize as a cryptic definition comprised of a precise definition combined with cryptic elaboration. For example, in DT 28560 (setter unknown) the following clue appears:
  •  26d   Heroic exploit, whichever way you look at it (4)
As the entire clue is a cryptic definition, it is marked with a dotted underline. The 'precise definition' is "heroic exploit" and is indicated by a solid underline.

Given the numeration, the precise definition could give rise to at least two solutions, DEED or FEAT. However, the 'cryptic elaboration' ("whichever way you look at it") indicates that the solution is a palindrome thereby immediately eliminating one of the two obvious choices.

Note that the part of the clue that I have called 'cryptic elaboration' does not provide a second independent route to the solution (as the wordplay would do in most other types of clue). Rather it merely provides a piece of additional information (elaboration) related to the 'precise definition'.

Again, this approach is a departure from past practice, but like the other changes mentioned previously is intended to remove inconsistencies in the way that I have been applying parsing markup to clues. The markup rules that I have been using until now evolved bit-by-bit over a long period of time resulting in some degree of internal inconsistency.

hide explanation

Across

1a   Appealing refusal, returned // gemstones (6)

{ON|YXES}< — reversal (returned) of {SEXY (appealing) + NO (refusal)}

4a   Oil giant doctored // gem with a design (8)

INTAGLIO* — anagram (doctored) of OIL GIANT

9a   A gem is changing // reflections (6)

IMAGES* — anagram (changing) of A GEM IS

10a   Amused // seeker of pearls with Mr. Rogers (8)

DIVER|TED — DIVER (seeker of pearls) + (with) TED (Mr. Rogers)

Edward S. "Ted" Rogers[7] (1900–1939) was a Canadian pioneer in the radio industry and the founder of the Rogers Vacuum Tube Company and Toronto radio station CFRB. He is regarded as the founder of Rogers Communications, although it was established in 1967, almost three decades after his death.

Scratching the Surface
Fred Rogers[7] (1928–2003) was an American television personality known as the creator and host of the educational preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.

The series originated in 1963 as Misterogers, a 15-minute progam on CBC Television where it ran for about four years. In 1966, Rogers acquired the rights to his program from the CBC and moved the show to WQED in Pittsburgh, re-branding it Misterogers' Neighborhood and later Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. Initially the show — now expanded to a half-hour format — comprised the Canadian-produced segments supplemented with additional material filmed in Pittsburgh. In 1968, the show went national in the US on National Educational Television (NET). It aired on NET and its successor, PBS, until 2001.

12a   Gem set alone // in that way sparked a rage (9)

SO|LIT|A|IRE — SO (in that way; unless completed just so, the form will be rejected) + LIT (sparked) + A () + IRE (rage)

13a   In audition, repairs // some shoes (5)

HEELS~ — sounds like (in audition) HEALS (repairs)

14a   Nothing in Kansas // squeals (5)

O|IN|KS — O (nothing; letter that looks like a zero) + IN () + KS (Kansas; postal service abbrev.)

16a   One in hurry after // lounge seat (6)

CHA(I)SE — I ([Roman numeral for] one) contained in (in) CHASE (hurry after)

20a   Evergreens behind small // mountain ridges (6)

S|PINES — PINES (evergreens) following (behind) S (small; abbrev.)

21a   Second youngster with a // breathing apparatus (5)

S|CUB|A — S (second; abbrev.) + CUB (youngster) + (with) A ()

24a   Flower associated with hot // celebrants in March (5)

IRIS|H — IRIS (flower) + (associated with) H (hot; abbrev.)

25a   Article in Mad profiles // gemstones (4-5)

FIRE OP(A)LS — A ([indefinite] article) contained in (in) anagram (mad) of PROFILES

Scratching the Surface
Mad[7] is an American humor magazine founded in 1952. Launched as a comic book before it became a magazine, it was widely imitated and influential, impacting not only satirical media but the cultural landscape of the 20th century, reaching a readership of more than two million during its 1974 circulation peak.

27a   Comeback of “Finks” band // being featured (8)

STAR<|RING — reversal of (comeback of) RATS (finks) + RING (band)

28a   Some stones with designs // arrived with rings (6)

CAME|OS — CAME (arrived) + (with) OS (rings; plural of a letter that looks like a ring)

29a   Steadies troubled // part of Manhattan (4,4)

{EAST SIDE}* — anagram (troubled) of STEADIES

The East Side of Manhattan[7] refers to the side of Manhattan Island which abuts the East River and faces Brooklyn and Queens.

30a   Information about first of eight // sides of a gem (6)

FAC(E)TS — FACTS (information) containing (about) E (first [initial letter] of Eight)

Down

1d   Love calling // oversight (8)

O|MISSION — O (love; nil tennis score) + MISSION (calling)

2d   Kid // recycled angry lie (8)

YEARLING* — anagram (recycled) of ANGRY LIE

3d   Excellent opening // occasion (5)

E|VENT — E (excellent; abbrev. used by a teacher to grade schoolwork) + VENT (opening)

5d   Innocent // I entering part of a cathedral (5)

NA(I)VE — I () contained in (entering) NAVE (part of a cathedral)

Scratching the Surface
Pope Innocent I[7] (d. 417) served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 401 to his death in 417.

6d   A classic computer game’s about the misplaced // gemstones (9)

A|M(ETH*)YST|S — {A () + MYST (classic computer game) + S ('s)} containing (about) an anagram (misplaced) of THE

Myst[7] is a graphic adventure puzzle video game initially released on the Macintosh platform in 1993. Versions were later released for other platforms.

7d   Subsequently taking hit /in/ state of agitation (6)

LAT(H)ER — LATER (subsequently) containing (taking) H (hit; abbrev. used in baseball stats)

8d   After commencement, most adventurous // senior (6)

_OLDEST — [B]OLDEST (most adventurous) with the initial letter deleted (after commencement)

11d   Last member of jazz club obtaining third-rate // gemstone (6)

Z|IR(C)ON — Z (last member [final letter] of jazZ) + IRON ([golf] club) containing (obtaining) C (third-rate)

15d   Gemstones /and/ a pair of pennies found in British counties (9)

S(A|PP)HIRES — {A (†) + PP (pair of pennies; p[5] beng a British abbreviation for penny)} contained in (found in) SHIRES (British counties)

Shire[5] is a British term for a county, especially in England.

17d   Maintain // a lock from the rear (6)

A|SSERT< — A (†) + reversal (from the rear) of TRESS (lock [of hair])

This would have been far more appropriate as an across clue.

18d   Petition involving northern Europeans /and/ North Africans (8)

SU(DANES)E — SUE (petition) containing (involving) DANES (northern Europeans)

19d   Good grade helps // members of the orchestra (8)

B|ASSISTS — B (good [academic] grade) + ASSISTS (helps)

22d   Initially take issue /with/ lightweight paper (6)

T|ISSUE — T (initially take; initial letter of Take) + (with) ISSUE (†)

I think one has no choice but to treat the word "with" as a link word — although I am not enamoured with this construction.

I have seen "with" used as a link word but in a clue construction in which it was preceded by the definition and followed by a charade (the inverse of the situation that we find in this clue).

In a review, I suggested that the previously encountered example could be explained in either of a couple of ways. First, with[11] could be used in the sense of characterized by or having ⇒ a person with intelligence and initiative. That is, the solution is produced from the constituent elements of the charade.

An even better explanation might be that the word "with" is expressing causality between the definition and wordplay. The preposition with[5] may be used to indicate the cause of a condition ⇒ he was trembling with fear. Used in this sense, the word "with" essentially means "resulting from".

Both of these explanations work when the definition precedes the link word but I don't think they work well when the definition follows the link word. Here, I believe we need a link word that connotes "results in" rather than "results from".

23d   Giants /and/ Browns interrupted by The Thing (6)

T(IT)ANS — TANS (browns) containing (interrupted by) IT (the thing)

Scratching the Surface
The New York Giants[7] are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area. The Giants compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's National Football Conference (NFC) East division. The team plays its home games at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

The Cleveland Browns[7] are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) North division.

One might imagine The Thing[7] to be a reference to the 1982 American science fiction horror film based on the 1938 John W. Campbell Jr. novella Who Goes There? It tells the story of a group of American researchers in Antarctica who encounter the eponymous "Thing", a parasitic extraterrestrial life form that assimilates and then imitates other organisms. The group is overcome by paranoia and conflict as they learn that they can no longer trust each other and that any one of them can be the Thing.

25d   Penalized // discovery at hearing (5)

FINED~ — sounds like (at hearing) FIND (discovery)

26d   Nebraska town/’s/ mantra, I see (5)

OM|AHA — OM (mantra) + AHA (I see)

Om[5] is a mystic syllable, considered the most sacred mantra in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. It appears at the beginning and end of most Sanskrit recitations, prayers, and texts.

Epilogue

Today's puzzle  is a veritable treasure trove of gemstones
Key to Reference Sources: 

[1]   - The Chambers Dictionary, 11th Edition
[2]   - Search Chambers - (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary)
[3]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (American Heritage Dictionary)
[4]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[5]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Dictionary of English)
[6]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford American Dictionary)
[7]   - Wikipedia
[8]   - Reverso Online Dictionary (Collins French-English Dictionary)
[9]   - Infoplease (Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
[10] - CollinsDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[11] - TheFreeDictionary.com (Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary)
[12] - CollinsDictionary.com (Webster’s New World College Dictionary)
[13] - MacmillanDictionary.com (Macmillan Dictionary)
[14] - CollinsDictionary.com (COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary)
Signing off for today — Falcon

Friday, June 22, 2018

Friday, June 22, 2018 — DT 28664

Puzzle at a Glance
Puzzle Number in The Daily Telegraph
DT 28664
Publication Date in The Daily Telegraph
Friday, February 16, 2018
Setter
Giovanni (Don Manley)
Link to Full Review
Big Dave's Crossword Blog [DT 28664]
Big Dave's Crossword Blog Review Written By
Deep Threat
BD Rating
Difficulty - ★★ Enjoyment - ★★★
Falcon's Experience
┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┐
███████████████████████████████████
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┘
Legend:
- solved without assistance
- incorrect prior to use of puzzle solving tools
- solved with assistance from puzzle solving tools
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by puzzle solving tools
- solved but without fully parsing the clue
- unsolved or incorrect prior to visiting Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by solutions from Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- reviewed by Falcon for Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- yet to be solved

Introduction

This rare week — in which the puzzles were published in the National Post on the same day of the week in which they appeared in The Daily Telegraph — wraps up with a gentle offering from Giovanni.

I invite you to leave a comment to let us know how you fared with the puzzle.

Notes on Today's Puzzle

This commentary is intended to serve as a supplement to the review of this puzzle found at Big Dave's Crossword Blog, to which a link is provided in the table above.

Click here for an explanation of conventions and symbols used in explaining the parsing of clues.


The purpose of this article is to explain the conventions and symbols that I use on this blog in explaining the parsing of clues.

Legend:

The following symbols are used in reviews:
  • "*" anagram
  • "~" sounds like
  • "<" indicates that the preceding letters are reversed
  • "( )" encloses contained letters
  • "_" replaces letters that have been deleted
  • "†" indicates that the word is present in the clue

The review of a clue takes the following general structure:

#a/d   Clue containing parsing markup (num*)

* num = numeration

Explanations pertaining to the wordplay (or first definition in a double definition)

(Horizontal separator)


Explanations pertaining to the definition (or second definition in a double definition) and solution.

Explanatory Box
An explanatory box provides additional information about the clue. In most cases this information will not necessarily help in solving the clue but provides information about the clue. In the case of the weekday syndicated Daily Telegraph puzzles, such information is often intended to help the North American solver appreciate how the clue may be perceived by a British solver. These boxes may also provide information on people, places, films, television programmes, works of art and literature, etc. mentioned in the clue.

Although the titles of these boxes will usually be drawn from a standard list, I do occasionally throw in a title specifically suggested by the subject at hand. The standard titles include:
  • Scratching the Surface - an explanation of the surface reading of the clue
  • Delving Deeper - in-depth information pertaining to a subject mentioned in an explanation
  • Behind the Picture - for weekday puzzles, information about an illustration found on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What did he/she/they say? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a remark made in a review or comment on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What are they talking about? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a discussion on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
One box that may provide information that could prove helpful in solving the clue is the following:
  • Here and There - for weekday puzzles, discusses words whose British meaning differs from their North American meaning

Note that there are many types of cryptic crossword clue and it is not my intention to exhaustively go through all of them here. I will only deal with clue types to the extent necessary to explain the conventions and symbols used on the blog. Furthermore, be aware that, in the world of cryptic crosswords, there seems to be an exception to every rule.

With one exception that I can think of, cryptic crossword clues provide two routes to the solution. These are commonly referred to as the definition and wordplay. While these terms serve well for most clues, there are some cases where the more formal terms of primary indication and subsidiary indication may be more appropriate.

Most cryptic crossword clues consist of a definition (primary indication) and wordplay (subsidiary indication). The definition may be a "precise definition" (a definition that is either taken straight from a dictionary or at least phrased in a non-misleading fashion) or it may be a "cryptic definition" (a definition misleadingly phrased so as to misdirect the solver either with respect to the meaning of the definition as a whole or to an incorrect sense of a word used in the definition).

The only type of clue that I can think of where there are not two ways of finding the solution are those in which the entire clue is a cryptic definition.
I identify precise definitions by marking them with a solid underline in the clue and cryptic definitions by marking them with a dotted underline.
In clues in which both definition and wordplay are present, the two parts of the clue combine to provide an overall meaningful statement (the surface reading) which usually bears no relationship to the underlying cryptic reading of the clue. In some cases, an extra word or phrase will be inserted into the clue to create a meaningful link between the definition and wordplay. I define clues which contain such a link word or link phrase as having an explicit link and clues which contain no link word or link phrase as having an implicit link.
I mark the existence of an explicit link by enclosing the link word or link phrase between forward slashes (/link/) and mark the existence of an implicit link with double forward slashes (//) positioned between the definition and wordplay.
Examples

A few examples may help to illustrate these points more clearly.

The first example is a clue used by Jay in DT 28573:

  • 4d   Fellow left work // a failure (4)
Here the definition is "a failure" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as F (fellow; abbrev.) + L (left; abbrev.) + OP (work; abbrev. used in music) which gives us the solution F|L|OP. The double forward slashes (//) between the definition and wordplay indicate the existence of an "implicit link" between the two parts of the clue (that is, no extra words are inserted into the clue to form the link).

The second example is a clue used by Giovanni in DT 28575:
  • 29a   Female going to match // travels with mother in advance (10)
Here the definition "female going to match" is cryptic (the setter is attempting to misdirect our thoughts to a sports event rather than a marriage ceremony) and thus is marked with a a dotted underline. The wordplay is {RIDES (travels) + (with) MA (mother)} contained in (in) BID (advance) giving us the solution B(RIDES|MA)ID. As in the first example, the double forward slashes indicate the presence of an implicit link.

The third example is a clue used by Rufus is DT 28583:
  • 18d   Knight caught by misplaced big blow /is/ staggering (8)
Here the definition is "staggering" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as N ([chess symbol for] knight) contained in (caught in) an anagram (misplaced) of BIG BLOW producing the solution WOBBLI(N)G. Finally, forward slashes mark the link word (/is/).
I also use distinctive underlining to mark &lit.[7] and semi-&lit. clues. Note that the reviewers on Big Dave's Crossword Blog generally prefer to refer to these clue types by the less pretentious names of all-in-one or semi-all-in-one clues respectively.

In an &lit. clue[7] (or all-in-one clue) the entire clue provides not only the definition (when read one way), but under a different interpretation also serves as the wordplay.
In future, I will mark such clues with a combined solid and dashed underline. Although this is a departure from past practice, it would seem to make more sense than using a dotted underline as I have in the past). Henceforth, the dotted underline will be reserved for cryptic definitions.
In a semi-&lit. clue (or semi-all-in-one clue), either:
  • the entire clue acts as the definition while a portion of the clue provides the wordplay; or
  • the entire clue acts as the wordplay while a portion of the clue provides the definition.
For these clues, I will mark the definition with a solid underline and the wordplay with a  dashed underline. This means that a portion of the clue may have a solid underline, a portion of the clue may have a dashed underline and a portion of the clue may have a combined solid and dashed underline.
One final clue type is what I characterize as a cryptic definition comprised of a precise definition combined with cryptic elaboration. For example, in DT 28560 (setter unknown) the following clue appears:
  •  26d   Heroic exploit, whichever way you look at it (4)
As the entire clue is a cryptic definition, it is marked with a dotted underline. The 'precise definition' is "heroic exploit" and is indicated by a solid underline.

Given the numeration, the precise definition could give rise to at least two solutions, DEED or FEAT. However, the 'cryptic elaboration' ("whichever way you look at it") indicates that the solution is a palindrome thereby immediately eliminating one of the two obvious choices.

Note that the part of the clue that I have called 'cryptic elaboration' does not provide a second independent route to the solution (as the wordplay would do in most other types of clue). Rather it merely provides a piece of additional information (elaboration) related to the 'precise definition'.

Again, this approach is a departure from past practice, but like the other changes mentioned previously is intended to remove inconsistencies in the way that I have been applying parsing markup to clues. The markup rules that I have been using until now evolved bit-by-bit over a long period of time resulting in some degree of internal inconsistency.

hide explanation

Across

1a   Vessel // in the morning crashing into bridge (6)

A sampan[5] is a small boat of a kind used in East Asia, typically with an oar or oars at the stern.

4a   Something cutting -- // it is evident in racism sadly (8)

A scimitar[5] is a short sword with a curved blade that broadens towards the point, used originally in Eastern countries.

9a   Cross province heading west, // protected from the elements somehow? (6)

Rood[2,3,10] denotes:
  • a crucifix, especially a large one set on a beam or screen at the entrance to the chancel of a church
  • (archaic or literary) the Cross on which Christ was crucified.
"province" = NI (show explanation )

Northern Ireland[5] (abbreviation NI[5]) is a province of the United Kingdom occupying the northeast part of Ireland.

According to Oxford Dictionaries, Northern Ireland[5] is the only major division of the United Kingdom to hold the status of province, with England[5], Scotland[5] and Wales[5] being countries.

hide explanation

The phrase "heading west" is a reversal indicator in an across clue.

10a   Wicked type // perched and troubled saint (8)

11a   I am maiden protected by being /in/ fruit tree (9)

"maiden"  = M (show explanation )

In cricket, a maiden[5], also known as a maiden over and denoted on cricket scorecards by the abbreviation m.[10], is an over* in which no runs are scored.

* An over[5] is a division of play consisting of a sequence of six balls bowled by a bowler from one end of the pitch, after which another bowler takes over from the other end.

hide explanation



The persimmon[5] is a tree, related to ebony, that yields an edible fruit which resembles a large tomato and has very sweet flesh.

13a   Live // satisfactorily by edge of wood (5)

14a   Advocates of one-party state // overthrown in a riot at last (13)

17a   Odd impostor tends /to be/ following a sort of artistic style (4-9)

In his review, Deep Threat underlines a shortened version of the definition. However, a rigorous parsing of the clue reveals that the words "following a" must also be included in the definition.

Post-modernist[1] is an adjective denoting of or associated with post-modernism.

The editors of The Chambers Dictionary are renowned for their whimsical definitions. I suspect that they may have been deliberately pretentious when they composed the following:
Post-modernism[2] is a movement in the arts that takes many features of Modernism to new and more playful extremes, rejecting Modernism's tendency towards nihilistic pessimism and replacing it with a more comfortable acceptance of the solipsistic nature of life. There is also an inclination towards mishievous self-referentiality and witty intertextualizing.
21a   Little living things // Georgia found in beer (5)

"Georgia" = GA (show explanation )

Not only is GA[5] the abbreviation for the US state of Georgia in official postal use, but Ga[10] is a common abbreviation for Georgia in other contexts as well.

hide explanation

23a   Old contrary female meets copper beside street /as/ usual (9)

"Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary"[7] is a popular English nursery rhyme. The oldest known version was first published c. 1744.

"copper" = CU (show explanation )

The symbol for the chemical element copper is Cu[5] (from late Latin cuprum).

hide explanation

24a   French art, exceptionally erotic /and/ mysterious (8)

Art[5] is an archaic or dialect second person singular present of the verb to beI am a Gentleman as thou art.

In French, the second person singular present of the verb être ('to be') is es[8].

25a   Firm admits an offence -- // risks may be taken with money here (6)

Here, we must substitute A SIN for the phrase "an offence".

26a   Dealing with // consumption, try not finishing initially (8)

27a   Stopped /being/ cold, and slowed down (6)

Down

1d   Dangerously smooth // Bond type full of impudent talk (6)

James Bond[5] (known also by his code name 007) is a fictional British secret agent in the spy novels of English author Ian Fleming (1908–1964). Bond[7] is an intelligence officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6.



Slippy[10] is an informal or dialect term for slippery.

Who is he talking about?
On Big Dave's Crossword Blog, Deep Threat suggests that the type of person in question is someone like James Bond or George Smiley.
George Smiley[7] is a fictional character created by British author John le Carré. Smiley, who appears as either a central or supporting character in several of Smiley's novels,  is a career intelligence officer with "The Circus," the British overseas intelligence agency.

Le Carré — who had worked for both the Security Service (MI5) and the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) — created Smiley as an intentional foil to James Bond, a character whom he believed depicted an inaccurate and damaging version of espionage life.

2d   Controls // costs, following method (9)

3d   Lover /is/ a wet, admitting fear ultimately (7)

An amorist[5] is a person who is in love or who writes about love.

Scratching the Surface
Wet[5] (noun) is an informal British term for a person lacking forcefulness or strength of character ⇒ there are sorts who look like gangsters and sorts who look like wets.

5d   Sellers of goods /given/ dull jobs outside ace institution (5,6)

"ace" = A (show explanation )

A[5] is an abbreviation for ace (in card games).

hide explanation

6d   Person making repair grabs a // thread (7)

Thread[5] (verb) is used in the sense of to move carefully or skilfully in and out of obstacles she threaded her way through the tables.

7d   Food /providing/ energy after journey (5)

"energy" = E (show explanation )

In physics, E[5] is a symbol used to represent energy in mathematical formulae.

hide explanation



Tripe[5] is the first or second stomach of a cow or other ruminant used as food.

8d   Girl reading having leg pulled? /That's/ cruel (8)

A lesson[5] is a passage from the Bible read aloud during a church service, especially either of two readings at morning and evening prayer in the Anglican Church he went up to read the first lesson.

"leg" = ON (show explanation )

In cricket, the leg[5] (also called leg side) is another name for the on[5] (also known as on side), the half of the field (as divided lengthways through the pitch) away from which the batsman’s feet are pointed when standing to receive the ball ⇒ he played a lucky stroke to leg.

The other half of the field is known as the off[5] (also called off side).

hide explanation 

What did he say?
In his review on Big Dave's Crossword Blog, Deep Threat writes Start with a girl’s name (she has an Old Testament book named for her) ....
Ruth[5] is a book of the Bible telling the story of Ruth, a Moabite woman, who married her deceased husband's kinsman Boaz and bore a son who became grandfather to King David.

12d   Presumably not the way a woman speaks // a curse (11)

15d   Bill joins union stars // -- they may examine business statistics (9)

TU[1,3,4,5,10,11,12] is the abbreviation for Trade Union — an entry found in American as well as British dictionaries.

In astronomy, Aries[5] is a small constellation (the Ram), said to represent the ram in Greek mythology whose Golden Fleece was sought by Jason and the Argonauts.

In astrology, Aries[10] (also called the Ram) is the first sign of the zodiac, symbol , having a cardinal fire classification, ruled by the planet Mars. The sun is in this sign between about March 21 and April 19.

16d   The old man going one way and another -- torn apart, /that's/ obvious (8)

18d   Most likely to inherit everything? (7)

The Beatitudes[7] are eight blessings recounted by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew. The third of these is:
  • Blessed are the meek: for they will inherit the earth. (Matthew 5:5)
19d   I had to catch the sun, // put on a desert island? (7)

The question mark indicates that this is a definition by example.

Sol[10] is a poetic word for the sun.

Origin: Sol[10] is the Roman god personifying the sun, a counterpart of the Greek god Helios.

20d   The answer your setter has chosen? // Gosh! (2,4)

22d   Good number in front of this person /in/ small statue (5)

"good" = G (show explanation )

The abbreviation G[a] for good comes from its use in education as a mark for scholastic assignments or tests.

[a] Collins English to Spanish Dictionary

hide explanation

"this person" = ME (show explanation )

It is a common cryptic crossword convention for the creator of the puzzle to use terms such as (the or this) compiler, (the or this) setter, (this) author, (this) writer, or this person to refer to himself or herself. To solve such a clue, one must generally substitute a first person pronoun (I or me) for whichever of these terms has been used in the clue.

hide explanation
Key to Reference Sources: 

[1]   - The Chambers Dictionary, 11th Edition
[2]   - Search Chambers - (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary)
[3]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (American Heritage Dictionary)
[4]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[5]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Dictionary of English)
[6]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford American Dictionary)
[7]   - Wikipedia
[8]   - Reverso Online Dictionary (Collins French-English Dictionary)
[9]   - Infoplease (Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
[10] - CollinsDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[11] - TheFreeDictionary.com (Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary)
[12] - CollinsDictionary.com (Webster’s New World College Dictionary)
[13] - MacmillanDictionary.com (Macmillan Dictionary)
[14] - CollinsDictionary.com (COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary)
Signing off for today — Falcon

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Thursday, June 21, 2018 — DT 28663

Puzzle at a Glance
Puzzle Number in The Daily Telegraph
DT 28663
Publication Date in The Daily Telegraph
Thursday, February 15, 2018
Setter
Unknown
Link to Full Review
Big Dave's Crossword Blog [DT 28663]
Big Dave's Crossword Blog Review Written By
Kath
BD Rating
Difficulty - ★★ / ★★★ Enjoyment - ★★★★
Falcon's Experience
┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┐
███████████████████████████████████
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┘
Legend:
- solved without assistance
- incorrect prior to use of puzzle solving tools
- solved with assistance from puzzle solving tools
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by puzzle solving tools
- solved but without fully parsing the clue
- unsolved or incorrect prior to visiting Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- solved with aid of checking letters provided by solutions from Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- reviewed by Falcon for Big Dave's Crossword Blog
- yet to be solved

Introduction

Today, the rating needles lean in different directions — the difficulty needle to the left and the enjoyment needle to the right.

I invite you to leave a comment to let us know how you fared with the puzzle.

Notes on Today's Puzzle

This commentary is intended to serve as a supplement to the review of this puzzle found at Big Dave's Crossword Blog, to which a link is provided in the table above.

Click here for an explanation of conventions and symbols used in explaining the parsing of clues.


The purpose of this article is to explain the conventions and symbols that I use on this blog in explaining the parsing of clues.

Legend:

The following symbols are used in reviews:
  • "*" anagram
  • "~" sounds like
  • "<" indicates that the preceding letters are reversed
  • "( )" encloses contained letters
  • "_" replaces letters that have been deleted
  • "†" indicates that the word is present in the clue

The review of a clue takes the following general structure:

#a/d   Clue containing parsing markup (num*)

* num = numeration

Explanations pertaining to the wordplay (or first definition in a double definition)

(Horizontal separator)


Explanations pertaining to the definition (or second definition in a double definition) and solution.

Explanatory Box
An explanatory box provides additional information about the clue. In most cases this information will not necessarily help in solving the clue but provides information about the clue. In the case of the weekday syndicated Daily Telegraph puzzles, such information is often intended to help the North American solver appreciate how the clue may be perceived by a British solver. These boxes may also provide information on people, places, films, television programmes, works of art and literature, etc. mentioned in the clue.

Although the titles of these boxes will usually be drawn from a standard list, I do occasionally throw in a title specifically suggested by the subject at hand. The standard titles include:
  • Scratching the Surface - an explanation of the surface reading of the clue
  • Delving Deeper - in-depth information pertaining to a subject mentioned in an explanation
  • Behind the Picture - for weekday puzzles, information about an illustration found on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What did he/she/they say? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a remark made in a review or comment on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
  • What are they talking about? - for weekday puzzles, an explanation of a discussion on Big Dave's Crossword Blog
One box that may provide information that could prove helpful in solving the clue is the following:
  • Here and There - for weekday puzzles, discusses words whose British meaning differs from their North American meaning

Note that there are many types of cryptic crossword clue and it is not my intention to exhaustively go through all of them here. I will only deal with clue types to the extent necessary to explain the conventions and symbols used on the blog. Furthermore, be aware that, in the world of cryptic crosswords, there seems to be an exception to every rule.

With one exception that I can think of, cryptic crossword clues provide two routes to the solution. These are commonly referred to as the definition and wordplay. While these terms serve well for most clues, there are some cases where the more formal terms of primary indication and subsidiary indication may be more appropriate.

Most cryptic crossword clues consist of a definition (primary indication) and wordplay (subsidiary indication). The definition may be a "precise definition" (a definition that is either taken straight from a dictionary or at least phrased in a non-misleading fashion) or it may be a "cryptic definition" (a definition misleadingly phrased so as to misdirect the solver either with respect to the meaning of the definition as a whole or to an incorrect sense of a word used in the definition).

The only type of clue that I can think of where there are not two ways of finding the solution are those in which the entire clue is a cryptic definition.
I identify precise definitions by marking them with a solid underline in the clue and cryptic definitions by marking them with a dotted underline.
In clues in which both definition and wordplay are present, the two parts of the clue combine to provide an overall meaningful statement (the surface reading) which usually bears no relationship to the underlying cryptic reading of the clue. In some cases, an extra word or phrase will be inserted into the clue to create a meaningful link between the definition and wordplay. I define clues which contain such a link word or link phrase as having an explicit link and clues which contain no link word or link phrase as having an implicit link.
I mark the existence of an explicit link by enclosing the link word or link phrase between forward slashes (/link/) and mark the existence of an implicit link with double forward slashes (//) positioned between the definition and wordplay.
Examples

A few examples may help to illustrate these points more clearly.

The first example is a clue used by Jay in DT 28573:

  • 4d   Fellow left work // a failure (4)
Here the definition is "a failure" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as F (fellow; abbrev.) + L (left; abbrev.) + OP (work; abbrev. used in music) which gives us the solution F|L|OP. The double forward slashes (//) between the definition and wordplay indicate the existence of an "implicit link" between the two parts of the clue (that is, no extra words are inserted into the clue to form the link).

The second example is a clue used by Giovanni in DT 28575:
  • 29a   Female going to match // travels with mother in advance (10)
Here the definition "female going to match" is cryptic (the setter is attempting to misdirect our thoughts to a sports event rather than a marriage ceremony) and thus is marked with a a dotted underline. The wordplay is {RIDES (travels) + (with) MA (mother)} contained in (in) BID (advance) giving us the solution B(RIDES|MA)ID. As in the first example, the double forward slashes indicate the presence of an implicit link.

The third example is a clue used by Rufus is DT 28583:
  • 18d   Knight caught by misplaced big blow /is/ staggering (8)
Here the definition is "staggering" which is marked with a solid underline to show that it is a precise definition. The wordplay parses as N ([chess symbol for] knight) contained in (caught in) an anagram (misplaced) of BIG BLOW producing the solution WOBBLI(N)G. Finally, forward slashes mark the link word (/is/).
I also use distinctive underlining to mark &lit.[7] and semi-&lit. clues. Note that the reviewers on Big Dave's Crossword Blog generally prefer to refer to these clue types by the less pretentious names of all-in-one or semi-all-in-one clues respectively.

In an &lit. clue[7] (or all-in-one clue) the entire clue provides not only the definition (when read one way), but under a different interpretation also serves as the wordplay.
In future, I will mark such clues with a combined solid and dashed underline. Although this is a departure from past practice, it would seem to make more sense than using a dotted underline as I have in the past). Henceforth, the dotted underline will be reserved for cryptic definitions.
In a semi-&lit. clue (or semi-all-in-one clue), either:
  • the entire clue acts as the definition while a portion of the clue provides the wordplay; or
  • the entire clue acts as the wordplay while a portion of the clue provides the definition.
For these clues, I will mark the definition with a solid underline and the wordplay with a  dashed underline. This means that a portion of the clue may have a solid underline, a portion of the clue may have a dashed underline and a portion of the clue may have a combined solid and dashed underline.
One final clue type is what I characterize as a cryptic definition comprised of a precise definition combined with cryptic elaboration. For example, in DT 28560 (setter unknown) the following clue appears:
  •  26d   Heroic exploit, whichever way you look at it (4)
As the entire clue is a cryptic definition, it is marked with a dotted underline. The 'precise definition' is "heroic exploit" and is indicated by a solid underline.

Given the numeration, the precise definition could give rise to at least two solutions, DEED or FEAT. However, the 'cryptic elaboration' ("whichever way you look at it") indicates that the solution is a palindrome thereby immediately eliminating one of the two obvious choices.

Note that the part of the clue that I have called 'cryptic elaboration' does not provide a second independent route to the solution (as the wordplay would do in most other types of clue). Rather it merely provides a piece of additional information (elaboration) related to the 'precise definition'.

Again, this approach is a departure from past practice, but like the other changes mentioned previously is intended to remove inconsistencies in the way that I have been applying parsing markup to clues. The markup rules that I have been using until now evolved bit-by-bit over a long period of time resulting in some degree of internal inconsistency.

hide explanation

Across

1a   Period after holiday, /showing/ result of getting smashed (8)

5a   Trade /in/ copper -- order placed by good man (6)

"copper" = CU (show explanation )

The symbol for the chemical element copper is Cu[5] (from late Latin cuprum).

hide explanation

"order" = OM (show explanation )

The Order of Merit[7] (abbreviation OM[5]) is a dynastic order recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, and is limited to 24 living recipients at one time from these countries plus a limited number of honorary members. The current membership includes one Canadian (former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien).

hide explanation

"good man" = ST (show explanation )

In Crosswordland, a "good man" is a saint. The abbreviation for Saint is St*[5]St George.

* The British do not use a period — or, as they would say, full stop — at the end of abbreviations formed from the initial and final letters of a word.

hide explanation



Custom[5] is a British term for regular dealings with a shop or business by customers ⇒ if you keep me waiting, I will take my custom elsewhere.

9a   A daughter gets choice /in/ child-rearing arrangement (8)

10a   Get // into bar tipsily with no end of uproar (6)

11a   Portrait /of/ idiot with crack (3,4)

Mug[5] is an informal British term for a stupid or gullible person ⇒ they were no mugs where finance was concerned.

12a   Brazen // curse-word putting out small worker (7)

Blast[5] is an informal British exclamation expressing annoyance Blast! The car won't start!.

"small" = S (show explanation )

S[5] is the abbreviation for small (as a clothes size).

hide explanation

"worker" = ANT (show explanation )

The word "worker" and the phrase "social worker" are commonly used in cryptic crossword puzzles to clue ANT or BEE.

A worker[5] is a neuter or undeveloped female bee, wasp, ant, or other social insect, large numbers of which do the basic work of the colony.

In crossword puzzles, "worker" will most frequently be used to clue ANT and occasionally BEE but I have yet to see it used to clue WASP. Of course, "worker" is sometimes also used to clue HAND or MAN.

hide explanation

13a   Surprisingly ranked rapid // transport system (4-3-4)

16a   Supporting case, // say (3,8)

21a   Biro duo misplaced /in/ private room (7)

In Britain, a biro[5] is a kind of ballpoint pen. Although it is a British trademark, the name is used generically (in the same way that kleenex has become a generic term for facial tissue). It is named after László József Bíró (1899–1985), the Hungarian inventor of the ballpoint pen.



Boudoir is a humorous or historical term for a woman's bedroom or small private room.

Origin: French, literally ‘sulking-place’, from bouder ‘pout, sulk’.

22a   Fortune rejected by family around English // novelist (7)

J. R. R. Tolkien[5] (1892–1973) was a British novelist and literary scholar, born in South Africa; full name John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. He is famous for the fantasy adventures The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of the Rings (1954-5), set in Middle Earth.

23a   Send earrings in part /to get/ valued (6)

24a   Start trouble after beginning of business // run illegally? (4,4)

25a   Child longing to return /for/ some offal (6)

Offal[5] is the entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food.

26a   Vessel covering river /showing/ flag in the wind (8)

Down

1d   Support on royal ship /for/ composer (6)

"support"= BRA (show explanation )

It is common practice for a setter to use the word "support" to clue bra[5], an undergarment worn by women to support the breasts.

hide explanation



HMS[5] is the abbreviation for Her Majesty's Ship (or, when the monarch is a king, His Majesty's Ship), used in the names of ships in the British navy ⇒ HMS Ark Royal.

Johannes Brahms[5] (1833–1897) was a German composer and pianist. He eschewed programme music and opera and concentrated on traditional forms. He composed four symphonies, four concertos, chamber and piano music, choral works including the German Requiem (1857–68), and nearly 200 songs.

2d   Adequate // time for lunch overturned? I'm horrified! (6)

While lunch in Britain is typically eaten sometime between 12:00 and 1:30 pm, the denizens of Crosswordland seem to have standardized on 1:00 pm.

3d   Relish // plan to eject son out of bed (7)

In her review, Kath has made a small miscue in the parsing (ignoring one indicator and using another twice). The correct parsing of the wordplay is [S]KETCH (plan) without (to eject) the S (son) + UP (out of bed).

4d   One whose contribution to life lacks recognition? (5,6)

Life[5] is another term for biography ⇒ a life of Shelley.

6d   Dress down // at college bar untidily -- I would (7)

In Britain, up[5] means at or to a university, especially Oxford or Cambridge ⇒ they were up at Cambridge about the same time.

7d   Note a sailing haunt banning new // liqueur (3,5)

"note" = TI (show more ).

The note in question, ti[5] (also te),  is the seventh note of the major scale in tonic sol-fa. While North America appears to have standardized on the spelling ti, British dictionaries also list te as a variant spelling — although they differ among themselves as to which variant is the principal spelling and which is the alternative spelling.

A perusal of entries in American and British dictionaries produces the following results.

The only recognized spelling in the US would seem to be ti[3,11] while British dictionaries are split into two camps. On one side, Chambers 21st Century Dictionary and Collins English Dictionary give the principal spelling as te[2,4,10] with ti[2,4,10] being an alternative spelling. On the other side, The Chambers Dictionary and Oxford Dictionaries take the contrary position, giving the spelling as ti[1,5] with te[1,5] shown as an alternative spelling.

Note that the sister publications, The Chambers Dictionary and Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, are diametrically opposed on the issue and Oxford Dictionaries has done a complete about face as I have notes in my files from a previous review showing that "Oxford Dictionaries decrees that te is the British spelling with ti being the North American spelling.".

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Tia Maria[5] (trademark) is a coffee-flavoured liqueur based on rum, made originally in the Caribbean.

8d   Minute on street regarding line /to see/ old musician (8)

"line" = L (show explanation )

In textual references, the abbreviation for line is l.[5]l. 648.

hide explanation

12d   Stint bursar arranged /for/ set of experts (6,5)

Here and There
In Britain, a brains trust[5] is a group of experts who give impromptu answers to questions in front of an audience or on the radio.

In North America, a brains trust[5] is a group of experts appointed to advise a government or politician.

14d   Old fines reportedly stop car /making/ delivery (3,5)

"fine" = F (show explanation )

F[5] is an abbreviation for fine, as used in describing grades of pencil lead.

Note: Oxford Dictionaries surprisingly characterizes this usage as British

hide explanation



A delivery[5] is an act of throwing, bowling, or kicking a ball, especially a cricket ball.

In cricket, an off break[5] is a ball which deviates from the off side towards the leg side (show explanation ) after pitching — the opposite of a leg break.

In cricket, the off[5]  (also called off side) is the half of the field (as divided lengthways through the pitch) towards which the batsman's feet are pointed when standing to receive the ball.  The other half of the field is known as either the leg[5] (also called leg side) or on[5] (also called on side) ⇒ he played a lucky stroke to leg.

hide explanation

15d   Fundamentally instructed /to be/ confined to one's room (8)

17d   Recent arrival // working to be accepted by a teen that's spoilt (7)

18d   Solar phenomenon /in/ east twice encircling docks (7)

19d   Win over // duke is supported by half of fleet (6)

"duke" = D (show explanation )

A duke[5] (abbreviation D.[10]) is a male holding the highest hereditary title in the British and certain other peerages*.

* The peerage[5] is the nobility in Britain or Ireland, comprising the ranks of duke or duchess, marquess or marchioness, earl or countess, viscount or viscountess, and baron or baroness.

hide explanation

20d   One seeking haul from bank? (6)
Key to Reference Sources: 

[1]   - The Chambers Dictionary, 11th Edition
[2]   - Search Chambers - (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary)
[3]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (American Heritage Dictionary)
[4]   - TheFreeDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[5]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford Dictionary of English)
[6]   - Oxford Dictionaries (Oxford American Dictionary)
[7]   - Wikipedia
[8]   - Reverso Online Dictionary (Collins French-English Dictionary)
[9]   - Infoplease (Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
[10] - CollinsDictionary.com (Collins English Dictionary)
[11] - TheFreeDictionary.com (Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary)
[12] - CollinsDictionary.com (Webster’s New World College Dictionary)
[13] - MacmillanDictionary.com (Macmillan Dictionary)
[14] - CollinsDictionary.com (COBUILD Advanced English Dictionary)
Signing off for today — Falcon